SQL AND, OR and NOT Operators

The AND and OR operators are used to filter records based on more than one condition:

  • The AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND are TRUE.
  • The OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.

The NOT operator displays a record if the condition(s) is NOT TRUE.

AND Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 AND condition2 ANDcondition3 …

OR Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 OR condition2 ORcondition3 …

NOT Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE NOT condition

AND Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city is “Berlin”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’Germany’ ANDCity=’Berlin’;

OR Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where city is “Berlin” OR “München”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE City=’Berlin’ OR City=’München’;

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” OR “Spain”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’Germany’ ORCountry=’Spain’;

NOT Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE NOT Country=’Germany’;

Combining AND, OR and NOT

You can also combine the ANDOR and NOToperators.

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city must be “Berlin” OR “München” (use parenthesis to form complex expressions):

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’Germany’ AND(City=’Berlin’ OR City=’München’);

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany” and NOT “USA”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE NOT Country=’Germany’ AND NOTCountry=’USA’;